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During the 1937 flood, Raymond Daniell wrote in the New York Times about frantic efforts to raise barriers “faster than old man river could rise.”. Check out the links below and tell 'em the guys at 'Experience New Orleans' sent ya! Davis Island, located 20 miles southwest of Vicksburg, MS consists of 30,000 acres.Formerly a peninsula bounded on three sides by the Mississippi River, a shift in the river cut it off from the mainland in 1867. Until the early 19th century, the Mississippi marked the western border between Spanish and American territory, and it continues to give life to the cities that sprang up along its route. It is truly one of the nation’s most important assets. In the late Cretaceous, around 80 million years ago, a mountain chain spanned the southern portion of the continent, blocking southbound water flows, so most North American rivers flowed to the Western Interior Sea or north to Canada’s Hudson Bay. California Do Not Sell My Info Now, we are going to approach the question from the other direction. The turbulent, cloudy-to-muddy, and flotsam-laden Missouri, especially when in flood, adds impetus as well as enormous quantities of silt to the clearer Mississippi. The Great Flood of 1927 accelerated the Great Migration, as African Americans, disproportionately displaced, sought economic opportunity in cities such as Chicago and Detroit. On August 1, 1993, the Great Mississippi and Missouri Rivers Flood of 1993 came to its peak. This great river, often referred to as the “Mighty Mississippi,” originates as a small brook flowing out of Lake Itasca in Minnesota and, 2,340 miles later, empties into the Gulf of Mexico. This article is a selection from the September issue of Smithsonian magazine. The Mississippi was thus born when dinosaurs still roamed the planet; one can almost picture an alamosaurus bending its prodigious neck to drink from its waters. In the 1800's, river travel up and down the Mississippi was fraught with danger. In 1682, a Frenchman by the name of Robert de La Salle reached the mouth of the river and claimed it in the name of his country France. In 2013, Nibi Walk, a group of Indigenous women walked 1,500 miles along the Mississippi to advocate for clean water—an issue of vital importance to the 18 million Americans who get their drinking water from the river. In the 1800s, many steamboats traveled on the Mississippi River. Drainage basin of the Mississippi River. This has not been the first recorded instance the Mississippi River froze. Dean Klinkenberg is a writer based in St. Louis. In the early 1800's, steamboats would provide the necessary transportation to move goods and travelers along the river. The history of the state of Mississippi extends to thousands of years of indigenous peoples. ” —Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (1770–1831) “ “Where is the Mississippi panorama And the girl who played the piano? Still, 70 million years ago the Mississippi was nowhere near as large as it would become. The Mississippi River has a history of dangerous floods. Here, we count down the mightiest floods of the Mississippi River. Approximately 50,000 years ago, the Central United States was covered by an inland sea, which was drained by the Mississippi and its tributaries into the Gulf of Mexico—creating large floodplains and extending the continent further to the south in the process. Sign up for our mailing list to receive information on the latest New Orleans news, events, and attractions! Owned by Jefferson Davis’ brother, the Davis family built two sprawling plantations on the island. St. Paul and Minneapolis exist today because of riverboats. So the river’s larger-than-life role in culture was perhaps inevitable. To others, its been a way of life for hundreds of years, a winding soul that ushered in a dawning country atop its tumultuous current. Because of the way in which the land forms a kind of bowl-shape around the river, 40% of the moisture that lands on the 48 joined (contiguous) states ends up in the Mississippi! Soto and his group of over 200 men traveled from what is now modern day Tampa, Florida in the southeastern direction in the hope of discovering treasures. The first victim to fall into the cold river was a dog who was lassoed out of the freezing water. Zebulon Pike, the U.S. Army officer who in 1805 led an exploring party in search of the source of the Mississippi River, sets off with a new expedition to explore the American Southwest. The Mississippi flows through the states of Louisiana, Mississippi, Arkansas, Kentucky, Tennessee, Missouri, Illinois, Iowa, Minnesota and Wisconsin in United States of America. This is his first piece for the magazine. History of Old River . After Union forces captured Vicksburg, Mississippi, in 1863, President Abraham Lincoln saw the emancipated river as a symbol of a nation unified: “The Father of Waters again goes unvexed to the sea,” he wrote. In fact, virtually every city along the major rivers of the United States can trace its very existence to the arrival of riverboats in America. We serve cookies to analyze traffic and customize content on this site. Old Man River, indeed. When it rains a lot, the water hits the ground and runs into the river. Famous quotes containing the words history, mississippi and/or river: “ The history of the world is none other than the progress of the consciousness of freedom. The Mississippi River is the largest and most important river in North America. Continue The Mississippi River has long played a part in the historical, economic and residential development of Vicksburg. In 1682, a Frenchman by the name of Robert de La Salle reached the mouth of the Mississippi and claimed the entire valley in the name of France. They called the joining of the two rivers Bdote Minisota. 1, Spring 2008 That disaster also ushered in an era of unprecedented public works, as the federal government sought to remake the river into a predictable route for moving bulk necessities like corn and coal. The Jefferson runs into the Missouri River, which runs into the Mississippi. History of the Mississippi River Delta. In modern times, the Mississippi River has also played … “Old Mississippi River, what a fix you left me in,” Bessie Smith sings in “Homeless Blues,” one of many songs about the 1927 flood. In the past, cities on the river haven't been s fortunate. Cookie Policy The Port of New Orleans alone serves as the 6th largest port in the United States, with the collective ports of South Louisiana boasting the 9th overall ranking in the world. The MISSISSIPPI RIVER. As recently as 2014, geological consensus held that the Mississippi began flowing through the embayment around 20 million years ago. A Brief History. Flowing entirely in the United States (though its drainage basin reaches into Canada), it rises in northern Minnesota and meanders slowly southwards for 2,530 miles (4,070 km) to the Mississippi River Delta at the Gulf of Mexico. By contrast, the Missouri River, in its current form, dates back a mere two million years. These are the extraordinary new findings unearthed by geologists including Sally Potter-McIntyre at Southern Illinois University, Michael Blum at the University of Kansas and Randel Cox at the University of Memphis, whose work is helping us better understand the monumental events, beginning in late Cretaceous North America, that gave rise to the Mississippi, swelling it to gargantuan proportions. It is about 2,350 miles long. Founded in 1811 and incorporated on January 29, 1825, Vicksburg rapidly grew as a center for commerce, agriculture and river traffic. Louisiana Goes Back to a Modified Stage 2, Commander’s Palace Has A New Executive Chef, Here’s What’s Up Down Here with Covid Restrictions, We Believe: Gray Line's Ghost Tour Is Spooky Fun, Ten Trippy Horror Films & TV Shows Set in New Orleans, Yum! The Mississippi River is the chief river of the largest drainage system in North America. Around 60 million years ago, the Mississippi was collecting water from the Rockies to the Appalachians; by four million years ago, its watershed had extended into Canada, and the Mississippi … In 1682, a Frenchman by the name of Robert de La Salle reached the mouth of the Mississippi and claimed the entire valley in the name of France. To the Mdewakanton Dakota it has deep historic and spiritual meaning. So, as an exercise in humility, the next time you happen to stand on the banks of this mighty river, take a moment to quietly applaud its muddy waters, and recognize the rich contribution that's made it an artery to the very heart of this great nation of ours. Where are you, Walt? New Orleans School of Cooking Zoom Classes, Social Distancing in this So So Social City, What You Need to Know: New Orleans Phase 2 Reopening. The water rises in Minnesota and runs south, inevitably flowing in to the Gulf of Mexico. Early European explorers used the Mississippi to explore the interior and the northern reaches of what was to become the United States. With the Mississippi River nearing record levels on May 2, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers blew up a levee to save the small town of Cario, Ill., from devastating flooding. Eventually, a gap in those mountains formed, opening a path for the river we now know as the Mississippi to flow to the Gulf of Mexico. The confluence of the Mississippi and Minnesota river is a place where cultures converged in the Twin Cities area. Smithsonian Institution, Smithsonian Magazine The Lower Mississippi River: The Flow of Trade: One of the World's Most Extensive Waterways, the Mississippi River Occupies a Near-Mythical Role in the National Psyche. The river is the fourth longest river with a length of 3,730 km; and flows at an average of one third of human walking speed. Keep up-to-date on: © 2020 Smithsonian Magazine. |. ? The river was a vital source of water for daily use and also for cultivation. Mississippi River History. The mighty river has inspired more than a thousand songs since 1900, including “Big River” by Johnny Cash and “Proud Mary,” in which John Fogerty (echoed later by Tina Turner) observes that “people on the river are happy to give.” That truism is confirmed every year, when people who live along the Mississippi offer a meal and a shower to the dozens of strangers who test themselves against Old Man River by paddling small boats from Minnesota to the Gulf of Mexico. The river had eventually become such a vital aspect of industry that during the Civil War, control of the waterway was a major strategic objective of the Union forces. View all Coastal Land Loss. 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Terms of Use The first Europeans to ever set eyes on the river were Hernando De Soto and his group of explorers in 1541. Privacy Statement The western portion was eventually purchased by the United States in 1803, resulting in the largest real estate transaction in human history - The Louisiana Purchase. The western portion was eventually purchased by the United States in 1803, resulting in the largest real estate transaction in human history - The Louisiana Purchase. The voyage marked the beginning of commercial steam navigation on inland rivers and led to revolutionary economic and cultural change. To purchase this grand book of river history, tall tales, and beautiful photography you can call 504-587-0733, or order on line with paypal at: Gift Products At least 144 million gallons of sewage and garbage were being tossed into the river every single day by the 1930's. [via Wikipedia] As construction began on control structures throughout the Mississippi River Basin, and as floodwaters rushed into the Ohio River Valley in January 1937, a district engineer in Memphis, Tennessee, … Mark Twain, the best publicist a river ever had, inspired 150 years’ worth of dreams about floating away from our troubles. Was this the worst flood of the Mississippi River since European colonization of North America? Steamboat Natchez: http://www.steamboatnatchez.com/, Creole Queen: http://www.creolequeen.com/. Spanning from downtown Minneapolis to roughly Fort Snelling, our local river gorge is the only true gorge along the Mississippi's entire 2,350-mile length. Among the numerous plant, animal, and insect species to call the Mississippi home are water birds, with over 60% of the continent’s birds migrating north and south along the river system annually. 45,000 to 12,000 years ago, during the last ice age, glaciers advanced and retreated many times over this area to slough away all the younger or top layers of rock formations. The Mississippi River system would go on to forge the settlement of central United States. During the Illinoisan and Wisconsinan glaciations (300,000 to 10,000 years ago), glacial till and moraines created dams that rerouted the Mississippi River to the west. Photo credit: Minnesota Historical Society Cue Robert Hickman, born a slave in 1831 on a Boone County plantation just off the Missouri River who worked as a log splitter. The river starts at Lake Itasca in Minnesota and ends in Southern Louisiana at the Gulf of Mexico, making New Orleans a major port city. But beyond the walls of Historic Fort Snelling, there are few well-known stories that depict the Black experience in Minnesota and more specifically, on the Mississippi River. Below the Missouri River junction, the middle Mississippi follows a 200-mile (320-km) course to the mouth of the Ohio River. To the Native American peoples of the river, the Mississippi was both highway and larder. And it might even become that big again in the future. Evidence of their cultures has been found largely through archeological excavations, as well as existing remains of earthwork mounds built thousands of years ago. For this very reason, as riverboats were developed to navigate the insistent currents, the Mississippi became arguably the most important vein of transportation in North America. Now it appears that the Mississippi is far older than Le Page thought, and it used to be far bigger than the Ojibwe could have imagined. In 1758, the French ethnographer Antoine-Simon Le Page du Pratz published The History of Louisiana, in which he wrote that the Mississippi River’s name meant “the ancient father of rivers.” Though his etymology was off—the Ojibwe words that gave us Mississippi (Misi-ziibi) actually mean “long river”—the idea has proven durable. Spanning over 2,348 miles, the Mississippi is the second longest river in the United States, and it's drainage area, approximately 1,250,000 square miles, is the third largest in the world. or The true source of the Mississippi is the Jefferson River in Montana. Scientists call that gap the Mississippi Embayment, but the rest of us know it as the Mississippi Delta, the vast flood plain that stretches from southern Missouri to northern Louisiana. In January 1812, the steamboat New Orleans reached its namesake city after a four-month voyage on the Ohio and Mississippi Rivers from Pittsburgh. For some, it was their place of … Blum has detailed how the waterway grew as it added tributaries: the Platte, Arkansas and Tennessee rivers by the late Paleocene, then the Red River by the Oligocene. Today, many, many years since Mark Twain wrote stories of his extensive voyages aboard riverboat steamers, the Mississippi River still meanders its way through our country, continually providing transportation, and distribution of goods to, and from the United States. “Ol’ Man River” buoyed Show Boat, the 1927 musical by Jerome Kern and Oscar Hammerstein II. The MISSISSIPPI RIVER The father of waters, the Mississippi River, is one of the longest in the world. On his way, on May 8, 1541, Soto became the first person with a recorded history of reaching the Mississippi River. The soil in areas such as Louisiana was thereafter found to be very rich. And among members of the Ojibwe, Dakota and Chitimacha tribes, who still live on portions of ancestral lands in the Mississippi Valley, a spiritual connection to the river remains strong. Her original master, Captain “Doc” Hawley, is a modern-day river legend and the world authority on steamboat history. the River Also Plays a Very Real-And Crucial-Role in U.S. Commerce By English, Ed EconSouth, Vol. It wasn’t the first time. The father of waters, the Mississippi River, is one of the longest in the world. “This was a giant river, on the order of the Amazon,” said Cox. The Mississippi River is known for its epic floods and these destructive events led to the creation of levees along North America's longest river. Better yet, why not take a cruise along the Mississippi on one of the last remaining steamships in operation! Nevertheless, regardless of one's perception, this body of water tout's an irrefutably significant history - A history that defines this region, and this country, for better or for worse, to heck or high flood water. But in 2018, Potter-McIntyre and her team concluded, based on the age of zircon fragments they excavated from sandstone in southern Illinois, that the river began flowing much earlier—some 70 million years ago. The Mississippi River has been carving a path to the ocean since time immemorial, always seeking the shortest and steepest route possible. Around 60 million years ago, the Mississippi was collecting water from the Rockies to the Appalachians; by four million years ago, its watershed had extended into Canada, and the Mississippi had grown to an enormous size, carrying four to eight times as much water as it does today, Cox and colleagues have found. This was one of the pollutants of the Mississippi River in the 1800's. Other pollutants such as garbage waste and chemicals were being dumped into the river. Native Americans lived along its banks and used the river for sustenance and transportation. Length of the Mississippi River. The river was able to hold the pressure for almost three weeks until it started to give away. 10, No. The former Mississippi River valley was later claimed by the Illinois River as the glaciers retreated. Get the best of Smithsonian magazine by email. The History of the Mississippi River The Mississippi River is the second-longest river in North America, and has had a major influence on the founding of the United States. This means, when there is lots of snow in the winter, or heavy rains, the river tends to flood. The new Natchez, built in 1975, carries on a grand tradition. The first Europeans to see the river where the history of the Mississippi River. Snow that melts on higher ground also runs into the river. The Mississippi River has played an essential role particularly in the history of several Native American communities. Fur traders plied their trade on the river and soldiers of several nations garrisoned troops at strategic points, at various times, along the river when the area was still on the frontier. Give a Gift. To understand the solutions available to stop this land loss crisis around the Mississippi River Delta, it’s important to look back at how the delta was created. Throughout the history of the greatest stream in North America, water has meant life, and lots of it. The Mississippi has been very important for transportation in the history of the United States. 17th Annual Photo Contest Finalists Announced. The Mississippi River system is one of the largest and most extensive watersheds in the world. The answer is a solid “maybe.” To some, the Mississippi River is nothing more than a brown slice of water separating the east bank from the west bank of New Orleans. 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